Inflammasomes are newly described molecular platforms that control the biological activity of 2 major proinflammatory cytokines: the interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18). Inflammasomes play major roles in innate immunity by activating an inflammation in response to pathogens but also to self-danger signals. They are composed of an innate immune receptor, for instance, NLRP3, an adaptor ASC, and the inflammatory caspase-1. In fact, the NLRP3 inflammasome was shown to play an essential role against infection by adenovirus, influenza virus, Staphyloccus aureus or Candida albicans but also to play a deleterious role in autoinflammatory disorders like cryopyrinopathies, gout disease and type 2 diabetes. IL-1β is the main effector for these pathologies. Beside, inflammation was shown to support tumorigenesis as seen for breast and lung cancers. However, little is known about a role for the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathophysiology of cancer. Our goal is to decipher the contribution of the NLRP3 inflammasome to tumour development.